Our daily lives have become much easier now. We can explore any part of the world from the comfort of our own home, we can control anything from anywhere, we can build huge skyscrapers, we can travel to the infinite universe. And there is one thing behind all this – science. As science has made our lives easier, it has also improved. In fact, the beginning of science from the beginning of creation. But to put it another way, our classical science begins with two sparks. That is the friction of stone with the stone of a primitive man. The fire blazed up. From then on, our best friend is science. But there are also some bad aspects of science. Hopefully not. People say that the evil side of science is the atomic bomb, with 48 different examples.
But I do not agree with the evil side of science. Basically, these are the evils of man. In any case, science has brought about the ultimate improvement in various aspects of our daily lives. However, one of the many branches of science has directly benefited us, saved countless lives, increased life expectancy. And that branch is medical science.
Today’s medical science has been developed in exchange for the sacrifices of many people. To improve it, many scientists have sacrificed their children and applied different vaccines to them. And the current topic of this branch of science is ‘cloning’. Although the history of cloning is not completely modern, it is 70-80 years old. Its purpose is to benefit people. However, with everything comes to some disadvantages. So let’s go with cloning.
What is cloning?
The word cloning comes from a Greek word. The word is trunk brunch; Which means branch creation. We all know about tissue culture. In this method, a cell from a mother plant is taken and placed in a bactericidal medium and cultured in a suitable environment to produce more than one cell. Cloning is a lot like that. However, along with culture, DNA technology is also used here. Cloning can usually be divided into two parts. E.g. 1. Therapeutic 2. Reproductive.
One more type of cloning is currently known. That is a replacement. This cloning method replaces any damaged cells in the body with good cells. It basically focuses on those two types. Now let’s see what is the therapeutic and reproductive issue?
Therapeutic: This method usually involves cloning a specific cell. This cloning is mainly used in making various medicines in the medical field. Cells made in this way can later grow in the body of the animal. Moreover, it is also used in research. This method is used to make stem cells. Scientists think that in this way it will be possible to cure any heart problem and Alzheimer’s disease.
Reproductive: There is a lot of speculation about this issue of cloning. Reproductive cloning is the process by which a body cell of an animal is taken and cultured in an appropriate manner to make it look exactly like the mother animal. Basically, the genome of the whole pocket is cloned here. This method is quite complex and time-consuming. Our discussion today is about the method of cloning.
How to do cloning?
In fact, how to do reproductive cloning will be discussed here. Animal body cells are used in the reproductive method. In this case, three elements are required. These are 1. The nucleus of the cell II. Center detached cell 3. Patron. The nucleus is first removed from a cell. The center of another cell is then placed in that center detached cell. This is done with an electric shock. Later that cell divides into a complete organism. Of course, if it is produced in this way, the animal produced is not exactly like the mother. However, if the animal is made from a cell that produces an embryo, like tissue culture, then in practice it will be exactly like the mother plant.
The success of cloning:
If we talk about the successful side of cloning, then we should be surprised. Because so far cloning has been a huge success. And it has been completed by a sheep clone called ‘Dolly’. On July 5, 1997, Keith Campbell of Edinburgh, Dr. Ian Wilmat, a professor at the Rosalin Institute, cloned a sheep using a sheep’s egg, DNA, and nutrients. However, it was announced on February 22, 1997. The life expectancy of the sheep they cloned was 12-13 years. The average age of a sheep is 11-13 years. But the sheep died of lung cancer on February 14, 2003, at the age of eight and a half. Moreover, we know of many more successes in the field of cloning. Not so long ago, on April 24, 2005, a dog named Snappy was cloned, which is still alive. Also, since the 1970s, many animals, including frogs and rabbits, have been successfully cloned.
Some Problems of Cloning:
There are many benefits to cloning but there are some problems. As we have seen, Dolly did not live up to her expectations. He died at the age of half his age. It is also known that the sheep from which Dolly was cloned was 6 years old. Cell nuclei are actually used during cloning. It has telomeres at the ends of the chromosomes. As the age of the cell increases and the number of divisions increases depending on the number of telomeres. When this telomere is over, the cells die and the organism dies. In fact, when telomeres are depleted, the immune system of the cell is reduced and various problems occur in cell division. As a result, the organism is infected with various diseases and dies. In addition to these, there are several other problems with cloning. However, scientists are working on these. And they have solved the problem of telomeres. Again, if someone uses cloning in a bad way, then its horror will be extremely offensive. If we read Jafar Iqbal Sir’s ‘Animan’ fiction, we can guess something. There we see that dogs were crossbred with humans. But it may not be real, but we can not say anything. There is another big problem with cloning. It is about morality. Suppose a person is cloned by cloning. Now the problem is what will be his family identity, what will be his religion, his parents. However, no solution has been found yet. Yet it must be said that we are optimistic.
Cloning and more:
Dolly’s cloning was possible for the 26th time. The previous time all the embryos were destroyed. If cloned in this way, this phenomenon can occur in humans. In this case, the question of morality arises. The birth of a cloned human baby will undoubtedly be one of the rarest events in the world. However, cloning of humans has been banned in all countries of the world except Denmark. The United Nations has passed a law in this regard. Yet rumors are circulating that human clones are being secretly attempted in many parts of the world. Many have also claimed that they have cloned human beings. However, no scientific evidence has been found. On December 26, 2002, an organization called Clonidine claimed to have created the first cloned human child, but they did not release any information about it. In any developing country, the reason is said to be that the woman’s husband was infertile. Then on January 23, 2003, Clonidine claimed to have cloned another human child from the cell of a 2-year-old Japanese child who died in an accident in 2001, although they have not released any further information. Panagiotis Javos, a U.S. physician, says he cloned 14 human embryos.
Javis, a U.S. citizen of Cypriot descent, is thought to be pursuing a secret mission in the Middle East. Because research on human clones is banned in many countries, including the United States and Britain. However, he has already cloned the fetuses of three dead people. Among them was a 10-year-old child. Cady was killed in a road accident in the United States. The baby’s blood cells were stored in a special process and sent to Javos. However, experts are reluctant to accept these demands of Javos. The first hybrid human clone was made in November 1998. This is done through advanced cell technology (ACT), and in this case, the nucleus from the human foot cell is transplanted into the dog’s egg but is destroyed within 12 days. Then, in January 2006, Samuel Wood and Andrew French, chief scientific officers of the Stimagen Corporation in California, announced that they had created five human embryos for therapeutic cloning, but later destroyed five embryos for ethical reasons. According to the latest data, in 2013, some scientists succeeded in taking human cloning to the blastocyte stage.
Some thoughts on cloning:
Well, how would you feel if you saw someone else just like you! We must have realized by now that this is not impossible with the present advances in medicine. Again, many people think of Einstein’s cloning. They joked that it would be nice if Einstein could be cloned again. The rest of the problems in physics could be solved with him. But it is important to remember that although it is possible to make Einstein from the cells that are preserved, there is no possibility that the Einstein that will be made will be the same as the previous Einstein. Maybe the intellect will be one in terms of scholarship but if the environment is not one he will not be like that previous Einstein. Because everything about human beings depends on their environment. That is to say, there is no possibility of it. Again the same thing would apply to a notorious person. Many point to the bad side of cloning, saying that cloning a serial killer or a notorious person through cloning would cause harm to the human race. However, it should be kept in mind that the environment in which a serial killer becomes a killer by accepting it, will never become a serial killer if the cloning person does not get that environment. Therefore, this fear should not be feared. There is no way to rule out another threat. That is, nature has created only girls in the old way. Girls have everything they need to clone. But men do not. So if women make a revolution, then there is a danger of extinction of men from the world. But that is only a matter of the future. However, there is no time to omit it.
Cloning for human welfare:
Although many people have many concerns about cloning, it can also be used for the direct benefit of human beings. If we clone a specific organ without cloning the whole human being, then it can be used for the benefit of human beings. For example, by cloning the necessary organs of the human body, bones, heart, eyes, blood, kidneys, these clones are transferred to the body of the affected person and it is possible to give his life. Think again that even if a loved one dies in an accident, he can be cloned again. Although it still stands like science fiction. But what will happen in the future is still unknown.
One last thing I want to say is that everything is good and bad. It’s good and bad depend on human use. Hopefully, we will take a good look at cloning as nuclear technology is of immense benefit to human beings. And using it for human welfare will help him reach the pinnacle of progress. Maybe cloning will be our future! As we didn’t think about the internet 500 years ago, maybe it’s still out of our minds. Because our science and technology are constantly advancing towards the speed of multiplication.
Love science, stay with science.